Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . 7
par Christiane Kayser et Flaubert Djateng
ARTS FOR PEACE
Une ville comme théâtre de la lutte pour la paix . . . . . . . . . . . 14
Expériences de doual’art
par Princesse Marilyn Douala Manga Bell
« Non à la terreur ! » . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
Une caravane artistique au Cameroun
par Pierre Fichter
Si vous voulez comprendre comment fonctionnentles médias,
produisez le vôtre ! . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
Une radio communautaire camerounaise pour voyeuse
de compétences médiatiques cruciales
par Alexander Vojvoda
Le cinéma comme moyen d’œuvrer pour la paix . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
par Julia Krojer
Les arts et la consolidation de la paix : une approche nouvelle . . . . . 58
Extrait de la page web de l’United States Institute of Peace (USIP)
TRADITIONAL WAYS TO PEACE
Les funérailles, un espace de transformation
des conflits familiaux à l’ouest du Cameroun .. . . . . . . . . . . . 70
par Flaubert Djateng
L’éducation, les liens traditionnels et l’art
dans le travail de paix en territoire de Fizi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77
par Evariste Mfaume
La jeunesse, l’extrémisme violent et la promotion de la paix . . . . . . 91
par Scott Atran
Les théories africaines du changement :
perdues dans l’interprétation ? . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . 102
par Sulley Gariba et Thomas de Hoop
EDUCATION FOR PEACE
L’apport des écoles protestantes pour la promotion
et la consolidation de la paix au Cameroun. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .106
par Makarios Fandio
La participation active dans le domaine de l’éducation
à la paix – une approche indispensable. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .115
par Anja Vollendorf
Hand put it hand take it (La main donne, la main prend) . . . . . . . 127
L’Éducation alternative de base et la consolidation de la paix au Libéria
par Jehoshaphat Dogolea, Karen Domah et Rebecca Hackstein
Les clubs de paix des jeunes de Goma et Gisenyi,
gages pour la stabilisation de la ville de Goma ? . . . . . . . . . . . . 137
par Me Christian K. Sondirya
Education à la paix dans les écoles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .145
Expériences de la coordination provinciale
des écoles Conventionnées Protestantes au Sud-Kivu
par Vunanga Karhakabire Meschac, Safari Tabu Bernard, Barhafumwa
Bugondo Joseph, Bugoma Ndaviruka Prosper, Yanga Jonas, David Mukamba
Byendo, Heri Mirindi Wa Murhega, Julia Wöhrle
Leçons tirées du Programme d’Éducation à la Paix de WANEP. . . . . . 153
Mis en œuvre en Afrique de l’Ouest depuis 2001 publié
par Le Réseau Ouest-Africain pour L’Édification de la Paix
The times are tough for peace activists. The globalized world seems to be turning into a spiral of violence, hatred and exclusion, but also of the resignation and powerlessness of those who are the first to be affected: the local populations. It is also our goal to identify and value our strengths in the fight against these harmful trends.
In discussing the theme for this publication, we proceeded on the principle that it is important to illustrate that the paths to peace are multiple and that the work of transforming conflicts can not be reduced to high-level mediations or detraumatisation at the population level. In a world increasingly prone to violence that does not resolve conflict and calls for a growing number of victims, collateral or otherwise, it is essential to take a closer look at what alternatives could help to reduce the wave of violence and violence. terror that is likely to engulf us. Looking at our SCP partners in different African countries, we realized that in addition to media work, fighting for human rights, struggles against discrimination, work on land issues, strengthening young people, etc., there are ways of doing things that open up promising paths towards peace: First there is art for peace.
You will see in this publication what creative and multiple ways art and artists express, synthesize and advance the efforts of nonviolent social transformation. First Princess Marilyn Douala Manga Bell, the president of the Doual’art initiative of Cameroon, known beyond the borders of this country, explains in words and images how since 1991 the city of Douala becomes the theater of a fight at all times against the violence that combines urban responsibility and freedom of expression. Pierre Fichter, a SCP support professional with the World Youth Dynamics (DMJ) in Cameroon, tells how an action-research project on the attraction of violent groups to young people led to the “No to terror! Caravan for Peace. The enthusiasm of young people for comic strips and – as in doual’art – the possibility for the public to be part of the artistic creation are all reasons for an impressive success. Also in Cameroon, Alexandre Vojvoda, who works in the English-speaking area at the Presbyterian Church of Cameroon (CCP), explains how making the community radio community actors can make it a non-violent instrument of social transformation. The tight wall between the media and the listeners falls, the citizens become radio journalists. After more than three years of work in Sierra Leone, Julia Krojer of the Sierra Leone Adult Education Association (SLADEA) tells of the experiences with the film as an instrument of peace. These are films on the fight against the Ebola virus, on the gender approach, but also and above all on the production of a film based on the very popular radio drama Konkoroma illustrating everyday life and debating major societal issues. Violence as the experience of most people during and after the period of war is a recurring theme. The impact of such artistic and media work on the consciousness of the populations can not be overestimated.
To close this section we reproduce a more theoretical article of the United States Institute of Peace (USIP) on the interaction and mutual enrichment between art and peace work at the international level. There is a growing tendency to turn to art for conflict transformation. The bibliographical references at the end of the article allow the reader to deepen his reflection.
Then we will deal with traditional ways to peace. Flaubert Djateng of the Zenü Network in Cameroon explains the role played to date by the traditional funerals in Bamileke country for conflict management and better social cohesion. This costly tradition of time and material and human resources is not only challenged by people from other cultures, but also arouses more and more controversy among young Bamileke. Yet its social function is essential. Evariste Mfaume, coordinator of the NGO Solidarité des Volontaires, SCP partner of Eirene in the territory of Fizi in the east of the DRC, illustrates the experiences of his organization with the advice of sages, intercommunal “barzas” and theater for peace in the context of the “local dynamics for peace” approach. In this area shaken by wars and rebellions, local populations need to create ramparts against rising violence. We also resumed the intervention in 2015 of the anthropologist Scott Atran before the United Nations Security Council on Youth, Violence and Peacebuilding. This intervention emphasizes that violent extremism in our globalized world does not emanate from traditional cultures, but rather signals a loss of speed, a destruction of these cultures without individuals recovering a desperately needed social identity, they then seek in fundamentalism and extremism. Finally, we found it interesting to include a brief note by Sulley Gariba and Thomas de Hoop working in Ghana on the need to address the specificity of the notions of evaluation and theory of change in African cultures instead of always tackling European concepts on all kinds of cultures. The third part revolves around education for peace. In an historical article Makarios Fandio of the National Directorate of Teaching of the Evangelical Church in Cameroon (EEC) tells us the history of Protestant schools in Cameroon and discusses their contribution to the promotion and consolidation of peace. After two years as a PCS support professional at the Network of Organizational Innovation (RIO) in Eastern DRC Anja Vollendorf emphasizes the importance of active participation of people to be trained in any educational initiative. She talks about experiences with participation in peace education and proposes tools. Jehoshaphat Dogolea, Karen Domah and Rebecca Hackstein all work at the National Adult Education Association of Liberia (NAEAL). They tell us about the experiences with their Hand Put It, Hand Take It initiative of basic education work and conflict transformation in rural and urban communities in Liberia. The success of this intergenerational work that unifies the communities has meant that in some cases it is taken up in mosques and churches. The reception of people from elsewhere has also improved. It is a peace education in the deep sense of the term. Christian Sondirya, Coordinator of the Commission for Justice, Peace and Safeguarding the Creation of the Baptist Community in Central Africa in the East of the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), recounts experiences with youth peace clubs in cross-border cities in Goma DRC) and Gisenyi (Rwanda). This work is part of the fight against the prejudices between the populations of the two countries and wants to strengthen the participation of the young people in the work of peace in an area where on the DRC side the armed groups and the violent conflicts abound.
The team of the Provincial Coordination of Protestant Protestant Schools in South Kivu (CP-ECP / SK) with the SCP support professional Julia Wöhrle talks about experiences with peace education in schools in South Kivu. Good governance and the fight against violent behavior are the main concerns. The ultimate goal of the work is to establish a culture of peace in an environment shaken by violent conflicts of all kinds, of which state actors are often active protagonists. Finally, we publish extracts from the lessons learned from the Peace Education Program implemented in West Africa since 2001 by the West African Network for Peace Education (WANEP).
We hope that this kaleidoscope of experiences and reflections on the three themes will nourish your work and allow us all to move forward together for a less violent, more just and stable world.
Your comments and feedback are always welcome.
Les Barthes, Yaoundé,